Nefyn

Mae'r hanes cryno hwn yn datblygu. Dilynwch y lincs i gael mwy o wybodaeth

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Saif y dref ar dir eithaf gwastad ar tua 100 troedfedd uwch lefel y môr, chwarter milltir, yn fras, i'r tir o'r clogwyni clai sy'n edrych dros y bae cysgodol a ffurfia harbwr naturiol Porth Nefyn. Mae adeiladu wedi ymestyn ar hyd yr arfordir yn y dythwn hwn, ond pery'r rhan fwyaf o'r ardal yn borfa iseldirol, ond am y de ddwyrain, lle saif Garn Boduan a'r mynyddoedd cyfagos yn gefn cadarn iddi.

Ymdardda'r fwrdeistref o'r hon a gyfrifir yn un o faenordai mwyaf tywysogion Gwynedd yn hwyr yn y G12 neu'n gynar yn y G13. Mae cofnod o waith ar adeiladau maenorol yn 1306-7. Adlewyrchir pwysigrywdd y faenor yn y gorffenol yn enwau'r strydoedd a'r llefydd -Stryd y Plas, Bryn Mynach. Nefyn oedd pen yr hen 'gwmwd'.

Cafodd ymweliad gan Edward I yn 1284, a chynhaliwyd 'Bwrdd Crwn' neu dwrnament yno i ddathlu ei goncwest dros Wynedd. Casgliad o gaeau yn ymestyn oddi tan Ystâd Iorwerth tua Capel Seion (tua 300 llath o'r gogledd - de wrth 80, gyda llethr serth ar y Gorllewin (SH30774027) yw Cae Iorwerth. Derbynir yn lleol mai yno y cynhaliwyd y twrnament. Yn y Tithe Award Schedule 1838-42 ffurfiai'r caeau yma ran o ardal fwy o'r enw Cae Thomas lle roedd rhafflan a allai fod yn achos lefelu artiffisial. Yn 1833 rhoddwyd i'w leoliad tybiedig glawdd cylchog ger lôn Edern, ond ni phery unrhyw awgrym o'i fodolaeth.

Derbyniodd Nefyn siarter frenhinol yn 1355 gan y 'tywysog du', a bu'n ganolfan bwysicaf ym Mhen Llyn dan yn ddiweddarach o lawer, gyda'i masnach pysgod a phwysigrwydd mawr ei chysylltiadau arfordirol. Daethai'r llyngesau o gychod bach a chymaint o bennog y bu'n rhaid eu defnyddio fel gwrtaith, ac o hynny y daeth y pysgod yn rhan o arfbais Nefyn. Gwerthid y pysgod mewn trioedd "mwrw", a dyna pam y tri yn yr arfbais. Cyfeiria trigolion Pen Llyn at bobl Nefyn fel Penwaig hyd heddiw.

Siap llong sydd i'r ceiliog tywydd sy'n eistedd ar ben eglwys Santes Fair (bellach yn amgueddfa forwrol), gan ddangos eto bwysigrwydd y môr mewn cyfnod diweddarach,fel y gwna llawer o enwau'r tai a'r llefydd. Y môr oedd y ffurf pwysicaf ar gludo pethau i ac o Ben Llyn hyd nes y daeth cyswllt lonydd a rheilffyrdd yn nes.

Mae cofnod o waith ar adeiladau maenorol o 1306-7. Ond yr unig adeilad syd wedi goroesi o cyn y G18yw mwnt difrodedig 'Y Twr'. Ni ddengys cynllun y dref unrhyw arwydd o gysondeb o ran patrwm a gysylltir gyda bwrdeistrefi Edwardaidd fel Conwy neu Gaernarfon, a does dim prawf iddi gael ei grymuso.

Mae plwyf Nefyn yn cydffinio gyda'r hen fwrdeistref a ddaeth i ben yn 1882, a'i hanes yn debyg i hanes bwrdeistref Pwllheli. Cyflwynwyd corfforaeth Nefyn a Phwllheli i rinweddau y deddfau cau tiroedd gan Mr. Richard Ellis. Pa mor anghyfarwydd bynnag ag yr oedd Ellis a'r gyfraith, gwnaeth iawn am hynny drwy ei ddawn gynhenid o herio corfforaeth fwy di-ddeall nag yntau. Ei dad, neu Ellis ei hun a ddarbwyllodd stiwardiaid 'Nevin' i ymddihatru eu hunain oddi wrth eu hawliau i dri neu bedwar can acer o dir cyhoeddus - tir a ddefnyddid gan amlaf gan y trigolion ar gyfer eu defaid - dan yr argraff eu bod yn cytuno i indentur prentisiaeth. Ym Mhwllheli derbyniodd y gorfforaeth ychydig o latheni sgwar o graig foel, yn gyfnewid am dir oedd yn werth tua £500 y flwyddyn. Dywedodd Ellis wrth Gomisiynwyr y Corfforaethau Trefol, yn gyntaf na wrthwynebodd sywddogion y fwrdeistref, ac yn ail fod eu gwrthwynebiad yn anghymwys ac wedi ei gwrthod.

CERRIG ARYSGRIFEDIG

Carreg â chroes, Ty n-y-cae. Defnyddir y garreg fel lintel i feudu erbyn hyn, ond cyn ca. 1860 safai ar godiad bychan, lle canfyddwyd esgyrn, ar ffin blwyfol mewn cae o'r enw Cae Pen-y-maen. Roedd y groes yn wynebu'r môr. Darn o graig igneaidd yw hi, a'i hwyneb arysgrifedig yn 4 troedfedd a 6 modfedd o hyd wrth 1 droedfedd a 2 fodfedd o led. Ond mae rhan o'r ymyl wedi ei naddu. Croes gyda breichiau yn ymestyn sydd wedi ei hendorri arni, uchder 17 modfedd, trwch gwreiddiol 9 modfedd. G7 mae'n debyg

CYTIAU A SYSTEMAU CAEAU.

Dengys y caeau modern rhwng Cerniogell (SH 32453993, 32 S.W) a Cerniog Fawr (SH 32704030), olion terasu dros ardal 600 llath de orllewin, rhwng y cyfuchlinau 500 troedfedd a 600 troedfedd, gogledd ddwyrain wrth 200 llath. Wrth eu canol (SH32624018) y mae ardal anesmwyth, gall fod mai dyma safle grwp cytiau amgaedig. Gwelir mwy o terasu tua'r gogledd ddywrain, ym mhlwyf Pistyll.

 

The town stands on fairly level ground at about I00 ft. above O.D., roughly a quarter of a mile inland from the clay cliffs which overlook the sheltered bay forming the natural harbor of Porth Nefyn. Building has extended along the coast in modem times, but the greater part of the area is pasture, mostly low-lying but backed on the S.E. by Gam Boduan and adjacent hills. The former being crowned by a magnificent Iron age Hill fort.

The borough emerges late in the I2th or early in the I3th century on what must have been one of the largest manors of the princes of Gwynedd, and work on manorial buildings is recorded in I306-7. The street and place names echo its important past- Stryd y plas/ Palace street, Bryn mynach/ 'Monks hill'. Nefyn was the head of an old Welsh 'Cymwd'

It was visited by Edward I in I284, and was the scene of a 'Round Table' or tournament celebrating his conquest of Gwynedd. A group of fields extending from below Iorwerth Villa towards Capel Seion (about 300 yds. N.-S. by 80 yds., with a steep bank on the W., center at SH 30774027) is now known as Cae Iorwerth ('Edward's Field') and are accepted locally as the scene of the tournament. In the Tithe Award Schedule of I838-42 these fields formed part of a larger area named Cae Thomas and contained a rope-walk which may have been the cause of artificial leveling. In I833 its supposed location was given as a circular earthwork near the Edern road, but no trace of this remains.

Nefyn received a royal charter in 1355 from the black prince and was until much later the most important center on Penllyn with its fishing trade and coastal links being of prime importance. Such was the volume of Herring landed by the fleets of small boats that they were used as fertilizer and became part of the coat of arms of Nefyn. The fish were sold in threes "mwrw' and hence the three herring in the coat of arms. To this day other inhabitants of Penllyn fondly refer to people from Nefyn as -'Penwaig', Herring.

The weather vane that sits atop St Mary's church ( now a maritime museum) is in the shape of a ship showing again the seas importance, at a later period, as do many of the house and place names. The sea was the most important method of transport for goods to and from Penllyn up until rail and road links came nearer.

There is documentation of work on manorial buildings in 1306-7,but the only surviving structure earlier than the I8th century, however, is a mutilated motte 'Y Twr'. The town-plan shows none of the regularity of layout associated with Edwardian boroughs such as Conway or Caernarfon, and there is no evidence that it was ever fortified.

The parish of Nefyn is coterminous with the former borough which was dissolved in I882, its history having been similar to that of the borough of Pwllheli. The Corporations of Nefyn and Pwllheli, were introduced to the blessings of enclosure by the commissioner, Mr. Richard Ellis. However ignorant of the law Ellis may have been, he was well versed in the art of bluffing a corporation more ignorant than himself. Either he or his father induced the bailiffs of 'Nevin' to sign away their claims on some three or four hundred acres of common land used at large by all the inhabitants as a sheep run under the impression that they were putting their hands to an indenture of apprenticeship; at Pwllheli the corporation received, in exchange for lands worth about 500 a year, a few square yards of barren rock. Ellis told the Municipal Corporations Commissioners, first that the borough officials had raised no objections, then that their objections were invalid and had been overruled.

INSCRIBED STONES

STONE WITH CROSS, TY n-y-cae. The stone is now in use as the lintel to a cow-house, but before ca. I860 stood on a slight mound in which bones were found, on the parish boundary in a field called Cae Pen-y-maen. The cross faced the sea. The slab is of igneous rock, the inscribed face being 4 ft. 6 ins. long by 1 ft. 2 ins. wide, but part of one edge has been trimmed away. It bears an incised cross with expanded arms, height I7 ins., breadth originally 9 ins. Probably 7th century.

HUTS AND FIELD SYSTEMS

The modern fields between Cerniogell (SH 32453993, 32 S.W.) and Cerniog-fawr (SH 32704030), between the 500 ft. and 600 ft. contours, show traces of terracing over an area 600yds.S.W.-N.E.by200yds.Near their center(sH326240I8) is a disturbed area which may be the site of an enclosed hut group. Further terracing occurs to the N.E., in the parish of Pistyll.

 


Gyda cymorth Cyngor Tref Nefyn

With the support of Nefyn Town Council


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